For my second blog I am going to focus on a different complex need that has become increasingly common within the class room, Oppositional Defiant Disorder or ODD. ODD is a condition first displayed in early childhood that is characterised by ongoing patterns of anger, irritable mood, defiant, argumentative behavior and vindictive tendencies towards people of authority. These behavioral obstacles disrupt daily activities within family life and academic life (WebMD, 2005-2017). Many children and teens who are diagnosed with ODD also suffer from other behavioral problems such as ADHD, learning disabilities, mood and anxiety disorders (such as depression or severe social anxiety). Some children can even develop a behavioral disorder CD or conduct disorder, which consist of behavioral patterns consistent with antisocial behavior and the violation of social norms and other individuals rights (Wikipedia, 2017). The exact cause of ODD is not known, however combination of genetic, environment and biological factors are believe to contribute to the disorder.
Looking at a study in 2001, including 88 preschool boys with ODD and 80 boys believed to not process ODD (meaning non-disruptive boys, assesses three times in two years to be sure). The study looked to answer three questions; (1) Is there a distinction in social-cognitive abilities between boy with and without ODD? (2) What is the correlation with preschooler’s social-cognitive process and behavioral problems? (3) Does ODD and ADHD coincide with one another (Coy, Speltz, DeKlyen, & Jones, 2001)? As both disorders have similar symptoms and deficits.
In the study the participants were presented with a peer oriented hypothetical problem, boy with ODD generated fewer responses, and if they did respond they were twice more likely than those without ODD to present an aggressive or violent solution. As well as they were less accurate with encoding social information, this was linked to verbal IQ and language skill. However there was no difference in response evaluation and attribution, or a correlation with ADHD. The study also found that ODD was typically found in boys (reasoning for the all boy study) and is often initially miss diagnosed as ADHD. The only real distinctive difference between the two is physical aggression and consistent antisocial behavior.
A deficit to interpersonal sensitivity and emotional reactivity are core features found in ODD children, therefore they have issues with social cues and often attribute hostile intentions to other’s behavior, (Coy, SPeltz, DeKlyen, & Jones, 2001) leaving children with ODD socially unskilled, socially rejected and deficits in problem solving skills. Children with ODD also believe that acting out in an aggressive manner will have positive results, due to their stunted social knowledge.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder can manifest into a life time of antisocial behavior and other psychopathically tendencies (such as Conduct disorder, as discussed earlier, and antisocial personality disorder), if there is no inference or treatment. Treatment method is determined by multiple factors such as the child’s age, severity of symptoms and the child’s ability to cope. Most commonly a combination of psychotherapy and medication are administered (WebMD, 2005-2017).
In my previous blog notifying the peers of a child with ADHD can be detrimental to the positive of their social interaction, however in regards to ODD notifying the child’s peer can be beneficial as the response to the child’s out bursts is crucial. As I mention before children with ODD believe that aggressive behavioral responses will result in positive effects, therefore if their peers laugh and react in a way that could be perceived as a positive response, a child with ODD (having poor social cue recognition) will view their reaction as positive reinforcement.
Coy K., Speltz M. L., DeKlyen M., & Jones K. (2001). Social–Cognitive Processes in Preschool Boys with and Without Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(2), 107-119
WebMD (2005-2017). Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Mental Health. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/oppositional-defiant-disorder#1
Wikipedia. (2017). Conduct Disorder. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conduct_disorder